The clarinet is a type of woodwind instrument that has a single-reed mouthpiece, a straight cylindrical tube with a cylindrical bore, and a flaring bell. Mozart was the first major composer to add music written specifically for the clarinet. The clarinet's history begins with its invention around 1700. The German instrument maker J.C. Denner invented the clarinet, based on a very simple shepherd's instrument called the chalumeau that had a range of about one octave and was widely used in the Islamic and Asian countries at least 700 years ago. Clarinet bodies have been made from a variety of materials like wood, plastic, hard rubber, metal, resin, and ivory. Beginner clarinets are made of low-cost plastic, the intermediate and professional clarinets are usually made of aged wood that gives the instrument a rich, full tone. Metal soprano clarinets were popular within the early twentieth century till plastic instruments replaced them with metal construction.
Both in sound and playing techniques, the clarinet is one of the most flexible instruments as it displays the characteristics found in the human voice. It displays more features than any other wind instrument and can reach nearly 4 octaves. The Reed at the mouth piece vibrates as the player blows air and it is carried through the instrument as the keys on it are opened and closed. This flow and ebb of air causes change in sound and tone. The clarinet is fully established now in symphonic music, popular music, dance- and military music and in jazz and pop. The clarinet’s non-European scales allow it to be employed in being in Indian, Persian and Turkish music, Gipsy, Kletzmer and even Arabian music.