The flute is a tubular musical instrument enclosing air that is set in vibration when the player's breath is directed against the sharp edge of the hole. Additional holes in the flute wall can be opened or closed to produce different pitches. The transverse (or horizontally held) flute was known in China by about 900 BC. About 1100 AD it reached Europe, where it became widely used in German-speaking areas. The flute was redesigned in the late 1600s by the Hotteterre family of French woodwind makers. This flute displaced the recorder as the typical orchestral flute in the late 1700s. In 1832, the German flute maker Theobald Boehm created an improved conical-bore flute, which is the model in widest use in the 20th century. The cylindrical Boehm flute is made of metal or wood and has thirteen or more tone holes controlled by a system of padded keys. Its range extends three octaves, from middle C upward. Other orchestral flutes include the piccolo, alto, and bass flutes. The flute produces very bright and joyful notes and is used by musicians in orchestras, concert bands, marching bands, jazz bands, ensembles and rock bands. Flutists Jean-Pierre Rampal and James Galway helped to popularize this instrument.